Naval Manument Tripoli Fieldguide to U.S. Public Monuments and Memorials Cabrillo
 
MAPPING & INFORMATION FEATURES
 
 
 
 
 
Monument Detail

On the Monument Detail page, the program will automatically place you in the Abbreviated database.
You may switch to another database at any time by clicking on the desired tab in the menu bar below.
Abbreviated Extended Complete Print
Introduction
1)
Title
World Terrorism Struggle 9/11 Tear
2)
Town, State
Bayonne, NJ
3)
ID #
1483
4)
Compilation Date (Initial)
September 17, 2005
5)
Compilation Date (Latest)
April 16, 2012
6)
Site Worked Last
October 04, 2012
Description
The monument reminds us, maybe even implores us, to want to resist and deny terrorism wherever it surfaces, imposing on all its control, pain and indignities. Entitled "To the Struggle Against World Terrorism," and situated in Bayonne, New Jersey, this remembrance of, especially, one terror-filled day -- September 11th, 2001, teeming, as it did, with simultaneous expressions of hatred and recovery – portrays a response to violence as envisioned by the Russian artist and citizen Zurab Tsereteli. On that September day, terrorists hijacked four U.S. commercial jetliners and crashed them, or had them crashed, into the Pentagon, in Arlington, Virginia; a field in Shanksville, Pennsylvania; and into the twin towers at the World Trade Center, New York, New York. The work’s creator feels that art can be effective in protecting citizens and society alike against terrorism. This artwork was donated, a plaque at the site reads, by the Russian people to the people of the United States -- perhaps as a way to protect, likely as a sincere expression that extends a sense of understanding from one people to another. Perhaps, perhaps -- only life is convoluted, and actions can overwhelm words, as suggested below.

• If in the genetics of monument-making there is one gene perhaps more dominant than others, its make-up is described by the answer to this question: Why do people build public monuments? A leading answer, our gene pool guides us, is so that we remember. So that we don’t forget that which is being memorialized, we build monuments to not forgetting, to borrow the turn of phrase used by journalist Michael Oreskes in a New York Times piece. But you know what? We almost did, on the Jersey City waterfront, where there occurred, indeed, a struggle, during 2003-2004. In the writings of that time right after 9/11, there was an on-going line of public comment about how Jersey City and its mayor, chiefly, had agreed, first, to accept “Struggle” for its Exchange Place area on the city’s Hudson River waterfront, from which one looks across to Ground Zero. Only later, after the mayor’s sudden, unexpected death, the city’s acceptance decision on the Russian gift-as-memorial changed. Writings about why the city decided to reverse itself included these grounds: “Struggle” was too big, both for the Exchange space and absolutely; it looked like a vagina; a “local artist,” whatever that might mean, should have been chosen; the town’s public selection process for identifying and locating art in public places was not followed; the proposed monument wasn’t really art, anyway; the work created a controversial, distracting tone.

Notably, however, one reason barely mentioned, if at all, may be the 800-pound gorilla on the waterfront, so to speak: Jersey City was intending to situate this Russian- inspired and -constructed memorial right where there already stood a Polish monument – as they say, you can’t miss it. Called “Katyn 1940” and dedicated to Russian-murdered, Polish military officers, in this database it is marked as ID #1902, created by Andrzej Pitynski and unveiled 5/19/1991. (Too, there is a “Katyn,” ID #1909, in Baltimore.) The Russia-Germany military partitioning of Poland, Europe’s Pearl Harbor, as it were, began in September, 1939; for its part, Russia assaulted and occupied eastern Poland, whose military -- officers, soldiers and reserves -- was seized and more than 20,000 of its officers forced into prison camps in the Soviet Union. This memorial centered on Poland and situated on the Jersey City, Exchange Place waterfront recalls a forest named Katyń, not far from Smolensk, Russia. There, in the spring of 1940, some 5,000 of those seized Polish officers were systematically murdered – the Katyń forest killing field – meaning that of the Russian secret police, or NKVD, the People’s Commissariat for Internal Affairs. For the next 50 years, the Soviets refused to take responsibility for the massacre; they blamed the Nazis. But with sadness, repulsion and never-ending shock, we learned that the shootings of many thousands of Polish leaders -- individually, in the back of the head with a gun, personally, if you will, as the Russians finally began confessing to in 1989. And now, some dozen years later, 2003-2004, Russian leaders it seemed were, once again, assaulting the Poles by seeking to place their Russian 9/11 monument – well meaning though it may be; abhorring terrorism as it does -- right on top of, or at the side of, or instead of – this, the Polish monument built to honor the Polish men and women who had been murdered by these very Russians some 60-plus years earlier. The “Katyn 1940” monument situated at Exchange Place helped some, and then many, not to forget that time in 1940.

• Tsereteli, according to a 2004 Globe and Mail article, was moved to his "Struggle" creation after he observed how people in the U.S. and in Russia “six days after” the events of 11 September seemed so shaken by the destructive, hateful actions of the terrorists. The art of his monument is marked by several design features. A 100-foot tall, 175-ton sculpture of steel sheathed in bronze dominates the picture -- its middle torn open, the split’s housing a suspended 40-foot nickel-surfaced teardrop. A plaza, surrounding the monument’s plinth, receives nine footpaths leading to the monument’s 11-sided granite base. It both supports the sculpture and holds the engraved names of those killed February 26, 1993, the first terrorist attack on the WTC, as well as September 11, 2001. There are other, contributory design elements: a surrounding public park, dedicated 9/11/2007; a piece of steel recovered from the WTC ruins, situated on a stand of black marble and dedicated 9/11/2011; and also, several plaques, some in Russian. The work’s central focus, the sheath with teardrop, was created during 2004-2005 at a foundry in Saint Petersburg, shipped in six sections, each weighing between 28-63 tons, to the U.S. where it arrived in August, 2005 and under the artist’s direction it was assembled at the Bayonne site by Russian and American artisans. Not only did artist Tsereteli create this sculpture and monument, he also helped locate it, ultimately in Bayonne, along the New Jersey side of the Hudson River in the upper reaches of New York Bay. Trained as sculptor, painter and architect; born Tbilisi, Georgia, January 4, 1934; Moscow-based since the mid-sixties; and, for many years, holder of the office of president, Russian Academy of Arts: Zurab Konstantines dze Tsereteli and his work are well-known, notable, distinctive and abundant. His early professional efforts found him participating in a wide-range of creative undertakings, from the design of structures such as housing complexes, churches and the 1980 Olympic Games in Moscow to working alongside the fine arts, with cloisonné enamel, stained glass, ornamental metals and other materials. His monuments and memorials populate the world. Two in New York might be noted. Situated on the north lawn of the United Nations headquarters, “Good Defeats Evil” (1990), a work in bronze, demonstrates St. George the Victorious slaying the dragon of nuclear war; a U.N. writing notes that the work “is assembled from pieces of Soviet SS-20 and American Pershing nuclear missiles,” destroyed as a part of treaty-terms agreed to by the two countries in 1987. A second Tsereteli sculpture, located on the campus of the State University of New York at Brockport and entitled “Year of the Child” (alternatively, “Happiness for the Children of the World”) came to the U.S. as an offering by Soviet premier Brezhenev to honor the 1979 International Special Olympics, held at Brockport and sponsored by the Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr., Foundation, Washington, D.C.

• Developing and opening the memorial, a multi-year project begun very soon after 9/11, focused, especially, on issues related to setting and money. Looking out from its northeast corner location at The Peninsula at Bayonne Harbor, where it occupies a two-acre public space called Harbor View 9/11 Memorial Park, the monument peers into Upper New York Bay toward the former, as well as current, World Trade Center, in Lower Manhattan. In 2002 this future monument site in New Jersey named the Military Ocean Terminal Bayonne, then-owned by the federal government, was re-named The Peninsula at Bayonne Harbor. There followed sweeping redevelopment, costing in the billions of dollars, with the city of Bayonne and its local economic redevelopment authority in the fore. During 2004 Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines, under the corporate name Cape Liberty Cruise Port, situated its New York-based cruise passenger service on the peninsula. The artist and his representatives began working with Jersey City government such that by 9/11/2003, the town announced its offer to host, support and erect a memorial at Exchange Place, on its Hudson River waterfront, with the 9/11 terrorist attacks as the centerpiece of remembrance. Though this interest proved contentious, for reasons mentioned above, its advocates were determined. However, when the town’s popular mayor and the artist’s champion, Glenn D. Cunningham, unexpectedly died May 25, 2004, the town council soon thereafter reconsidered its position and decided on 6/22/2004 to retract its offer to artist Tsereteli. Some 15 months later in nearby Bayonne a ground-breaking took unfolded. It embraced the new monument as an opportunity that seemed to align very closely with its community interests. In the fall seasons of 2005 and 2006 there were held a ground-breaking for the planned terrorism memorial as well as a dedicatory event. On September 15, 2005, a ceremonial ground-breaking for "Struggle” was held, with Russian Federation president Vladimir Putin and the sculptor both present and participating with Bayonne mayor Joseph V. Doria, Jr., and others. One year later former U.S. president Bill Clinton delivered the keynote address before a gathering of figures – notable and not, local and national, public as well as private – and the monument was dedicated. The city of Bayonne in 2007 chose to erect – close by, on a part of this park site, actually -- a city-sponsored, event-related memorial dedicated solely to the 13 Bayonne residents who died in the terrorist attacks in 1993 and 2001. See ID #1916, this database. The Harbor View 9/11 Memorial Park, in which this monument as well as the “Struggle” stands, was dedicated on 9/11/2007. It was constructed by the Bayonne Local Redevelopment Authority. A final memorializing design element was dedicated on 9/11/2011 when members of New Jersey’s Knights of the Fire, comprised of firefighters and other public safety workers partial to motorcycling, accompanied a piece of steel four-foot by six-foot that had been recovered from the WTC after its collapse.

Financing for the project’s activities has come from several sources. The largest components were, it seems likely, from artist Tsereteli and, perhaps, the Russian government. The central monument work by Tsereteli was made in Russia then shipped to and installed at Bayonne, on behalf of the people of Russia. The local driving force behind the monument’s development has been the Bayonne Remembers September 11 Committee, Frank Perrucci, chair. Early on the committee encouraged and coordinated local donors which gave supporters the wherewithal to press forward with their case for a monument. The group then picked up when Jersey City government decided not to proceed. Later, the Committee’s early efforts were supplemented by a paving-stones program at the site. Contributions of both effort and financial support were also made by the Bayonne Local Redevelopment Authority; the town’s public works department under its leader, Gary Chmielewski; the Hudson County Open Space Trust Fund and Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines. The design and drafting sections of the monuments firm Pompilio & Sons, of Jersey City, worked with the parties to secure and install the recovered piece of steel from the WTC site.
Content
Note: click on brown link to view distribution of field selections in database
1)
Loss & perseverance
2)
Group of common citizens/persons
3)
Not Applicable
4)
Male and Female
5)
Combination
6)
Not Applicable
Design
Note: click on brown link to view distribution of field selections in database
1.)
Man-made
2.)
Inscription/Text Design
Integrated
3)
Sculpture w/wo pedestal
4)
Stone/rock and metal
5)
Big
6)
Main + Two
7)
Inscribed/lettered directly and on tablet
8)
Text available, partial
9)
Yes (see below)
9.1)
Image numbering/location
3300-302.1, 3300-302.2, 3300-302.3, 3300-302.4, 3300-302.5, 3300-302.6, 3300-302.7, 3300-302.8, 3300-302.9, 3300-302.10
10)
Design Preservation
Good
11)
Inscript. Separate from M|M
No
12)
Designers
12.1)
Designer 1
Artist/Artistic Group: Tsereteli, Zurab
13)
Fabricators/Builders
Not Yet Determined
Setting
Note: click on brown link to view distribution of field selections in database
1)
Plaza arrangement
2)
Land (elevation/depression) , Open Space , Water
3)
Appearance/Setting
Completed
3.1)
Appeal of the Item
5 Good
3.2)
Setting appears appropriate
7 Exceptional
3.3)
Traffic near for access, distanced for appreciation
6 Very Good
3.4)
Visualization and panorama
7 Exceptional
3.5)
Opportunity to view, to enjoy the item
6 Very Good
3.6)
Overall Averaged Score
6.2 Very Good (Given a 1.0 - 7.0 Range)
To calculate comparative appearance estimates, CLICK HERE
4)
2001
5)
September 11, 2006
6)
Not Entered
7)
Not Entered
8)
Requires travel
10)
Other Monuments on Site
11)
Satisfactory
12)
Local government
Themes
1)
MonumentsandMemorials.com Themes
No Perceived Theme Match
2)
National Historic Landmark Themes
No Perceived Theme Match
Demography
Note: click on brown link to view distribution of field selections in database
1)
File Number
61
2)
Town/City
Bayonne
3)
County
Hudson
4)
District
Peninsula at Bayonne Harbor
5)
State
NJ
6)
Zip
07002
7)
Country
United States
8)
Latitude (GPS)
40.6638260000
9)
Longitude (GPS)
-74.0696740000
10)
Intersecting Street 1
Port Terminal Blvd.
11)
Intersecting Street 2
Robinson Cir.
12)
Additional Identifier 1
13)
Additional Identifier 2
15)
Man-made
16)
16.1)
Citizens/residents
16.2)
Government, Local
16.3)
Government, Other
17)
2001-current
18)
Compilation Date (Initial)
September 17, 2005
19)
19.1)
Newspaper
19.2)
Website
20)
Compilation Date (Latest)
April 16, 2012
21)
Compilation Technique (Latest)
21.1)
Site Survey
21.2)
Newspaper
21.3)
Website
22)
Source Originator
monumentsandmemorials.com
Comments and Notes
TITLE, ALTERNATES: Tear, Tear of Grief, Russian Tear, Russian Tear Drop Monument, Memorial at Harbor View Park.
DEMOGRAPHY: Location – Approximate street address, 14 Port Terminal Boulevard, Bayonne, NJ 07002.
COMMENT 1: Design – The teardrop was initially to be made of glass, but this idea was discarded as impractical. Another early design feature was to circulate cool water through teardrop, which would condense – if you will, a weeping tear, or a “vertical” water fountain? Operationally, this intricate design feature would likely have been costly to build and maintain.
COMMENT 2: Setting -- According to the Bayonne Historical Society, on its website, the U.S. military controlled this overall site of 160 acres from June, 1942 (Pearl Harbor’s bombing by the Japanese occurred December 7, 1941), until it was closed in September, 1999. Initially, the Navy controlled this location under its U.S. Naval Supply Depot, or Bayonne Naval Base, unit; in 1967, the Army assumed control and re-titled the activity Military Ocean Terminal Bayonne, or MOTBY, by which it seems to be remembered today.
SOURCES 1 (newspapers, alpha by author, title, numeric): Peter Applebome, “A Jersey City Teardrop for 9/11, Or a 10-Story Embarrassment?” The New York Times, June 30, 2004; Peter Applebome, “Disputed 9/11 Monument, at Sea for a Bit, Gets a Home Nearby,” The New York times, March 13, 2005; Janet Frankston, “Sept. 11 Memorial Rising in Bayonne,” Associated Press, July 31, 2006; “From Russia With Love: A Teardrop Memorial,” two letters dated 6/30/2004 by, respectively, Lauren Wagner and Thea L. Volpe, The New York Times, July 4, 2004; “Jersey City Withholds Action on 9/11 Memorial Sculpture,” Asbury Park Press/Associated Press, June 23, 2004; Jonathan Miller, “Art, or Something Like It, Brings Russian Leader to Bayonne,” The New York Times, September 16, 2005; Michael Oreskes (of The Associated Press), “Monument to Not Forgetting,” The New York Times, September 8, 2011; Al Sullivan, “A Piece of the Fallen Sky,” Hudson Reporter, July 20, 2011; Al Sullivan, “Bayonne to Mark 10th Anniversary of 9/11,” Hudson Reporter, September 11, 2011; Carolynne Wheeler, “Moscow on the Hudson Sculptor Zarab,” The Globe and Mail (retrieved 6/30/2004 from globeandmail.com), March 24, 2004; “9/11 Memorial in New Jersey Honors 40 People Too Many,” The New York Times/Associated Press, September 10, 2006.
SOURCES 2 (all others, by published date, retrieval date, latest first): “Zurab Tsereteli,” Wikipedia, retrieved 4/23/2012; “The 10th Anniversary of Attacks on September 11, 2001,” retrieved April 26, 2012, http://www.press-service.uz/, 11.09.2011; Richard Grigonis, “Russian ‘Tear 9/11 Memorial, To the Struggle Against World Terrorism,’” www.interestingamerica.com, retrieved 4/23/2012, March 4, 2011; “Russian-American 9/11 Memorial Planned for Bayonne,” Lower Manhattan Construction Command Center, Downtown in the News Archives, LowerManhattan.info, September 16, 2005; “9-11 Groundbreaking Ceremony Moved to Thursday Evening,” City of Bayonne, retrieved 9/13/2005, http://www.bayonnenj.org/ , September 13, 2005; “Artist Introduces September 11 Memorial at Bayonne Press Conference,” City of Bayonne, retrieved September 13, 2005, http://www.cityofbayonne.org/, March 10, 2005; “World-Class 9-11 Memorial in Jersey City ‘Moscow on the Hudson’ with Celebrated Russian Sculptor,” HELLO!-online, Issue 2/2005; “Jersey City Unveils Plans for World Class 9-11 Memorial “Moscow on the Hudson” with Celebrated Sculptor,” City of Jersey City, http://www.cityofjerseycity.com , September 9, 2003; “Understanding the United Nations: The Official Guidebook.” New York: Department of Public Information, 1997.



Privacy Policy Copyright ©2005 - Fieldguide to U.S. Public Monuments and Memorials Contact the Webmaster

Designed by RP Design Web Services